Cd. De México (November 17, 2018) .- In the last year of Enrique Peña Nieto's administration, the worst levels of violence were reached since there was an official system for the registration of intentional homicides. The administration that promised to end the violence of the "war on drugs" unleashed by Felipe Calderón ends with a monthly average of 2,500 homicides.
In Peña Nieto's presidency, there were more than 125,000 victims of intentional homicide until September 2018, of which specialists estimate that more than 50 percent are related to organized crime.
At the beginning of the administration, members of the peñista government presumed a reduction in the index of intentional homicides, but the truth is that the downward trend began in 2012, in the last year of the Calderon administration.
After reaching a maximum of 22 thousand 855 intentional homicides in 2011, the figure dropped to 21 thousand 459 in 2012 and continued to decrease until reaching 15 thousand 520 in 2014; but in 2015 a rebound began that has not stopped until now. For 2016, the number of homicides reached 20,547; registered 28 thousand 753, in 2017, and by September 2018 already amounted to 25 thousand 394 murders.
According to the figures of the Executive Secretariat of the National Public Security System, the sexennium could close with 130 thousand intentional homicides.
From north to south
During the administration of Peña Nieto, criminal violence moved from north to south of the national territory. States such as Nuevo Leon or regions such as Laguna experienced a reduction in homicides, but violent crimes rebounded to levels not seen in the last 20 years in entities such as Colima, Nayarit, Guanajuato and Puebla.
In addition, the municipality of Los Cabos experienced an unprecedented violence linked to organized crime during 2017 that placed Baja California Sur, until then relatively peaceful, in the first places of the national list of states with the highest rates of intentional homicide.
Violence remained with slight variations in Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Guerrero, the entities most affected by drug trafficking groups since Calderón's six-year term.
If in 2011 the five most violent states were Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Guerrero Nuevo León and Durango, in 2017 were Sinaloa, Guerrero, Baja California, Baja California Sur and Colima.
A new poster
On May 5, 2015, hit men fired an RPG rocket and shot down an Army Cougar helicopter in Villa Purificación, Jalisco, in one of the hardest blows to the Armed Forces in this sexennium.
It was the response of the Jalisco Cartel Nueva Generación to an operative of the Federal Forces to stop Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes, the leader of the organization that in the last five years has expanded throughout the country and has acquired even greater power and resources than the Cartels of Sinaloa, Juárez or Golfo.
"The CJNG is one of the most powerful and fastest growing Mexican drug cartels in Mexico and the United States," the DEA said in its latest report on drug trafficking threats.
The blows to other organizations contributed to its growth, such as the fall of La Tutaand most of the dome of what was "La Familia Michoacana", and the weakening of the Sinaloa Cartel after the capture of Joaquín El Chapo Guzmán in 2014 and its recapture in 2016.
Like the Sinaloa cartel, the CJNG deals with Several types of drugs, mainly methamphetamine, but also cocaine, heroin and marijuana. It transports drugs to the United States through several corridors along the northern border, including Tijuana, Nuevo Laredo and Juárez.
In 2016, the DEA reported 26 open investigations linked to the hierarchy of the CJNG, while for 2017 the investigations increased to 46.
"The rapid expansion of the activities of the CJNG is characterized by its propensity to engage in violent confrontations with both the security forces of the Mexican state and with rival organizations," says the DEA in its report.
According to the anti-drug agency, the CJNG has distribution centers in Atlanta, Los Angeles and New York.
But it is in the city of Chicago that the cartel is considered one of the main threats to the safety of its inhabitants, to the extent that in August of this year a binational commission was created to combat the organization, to which they attribute great part of the responsibility for the epidemic of deaths from overdoses of opiate-derived drugs.
Gendarmerie and prevention, failure and oblivion
The main projects to combat the violence of Enrique Peña Nieto's administration, which were presented as fundamental pieces in the "new security strategy", failed or were forgotten.
The disappearance of the Ministry of Public Security and the transfer of security issues to the Ministry of the Interior, announced by the PRI as a key element in combating crime, failed.
The Gendarmerie, initially presented as the solution to the problem of having thousands of soldiers in the streets doing public security work, was in a division of the Federal Police, consisting of about 10 thousand elements.
And although the mission was to guarantee productive processes, the gendarmes failed in their deployments. In Los Cabos or Cancun, violence soared, seriously affecting tourism sectors and in other areas, such as Mante, Tamaulipas, companies such as Lala had to suspend activities due to insecurity.
The same happened in areas of Guerrero such as Tierra Caliente, where companies such as Coca Cola and Pepsi had to close distribution centers due to the climate of insecurity.
In the first half of this year, 6.1 percent of the companies located in Mexico completely suspended their operations, according to data from the Business Security Survey 2018 of the American Chamber Mexico.
This percentage is equivalent to 25 companies out of a total of 420 analyzed.
In the last two years 14.2 percent suspended operations highlighting the states of Tamaulipas, Guerrero and Michoacán.
Likewise, of that total, 4 percent reduced their operations, that is, they did not fully complete them, since they decided to hire other companies to distribute the companies' products.
In Acapulco, criminal violence has led to the closure of at least a hundred businesses and businesses, according to local cameras. On the holiday weekend of November 1, occupation in the Dorada and Diamante areas did not exceed 30 percent and in the Nautical zone it barely reached 12 percent, according to the Guerrero government.
The violence also reached Mexico City, which registered more than 500 homicides so far in 2018, a figure that doubles the levels of the beginning of the sexennium, when the local government insisted that the capital had no cartel presence. In the State of Mexico, unprecedented levels of violence were also recorded, with executions, robberies, kidnappings and femicides.
The Program of Social Prevention of Violence and Crime, presented as the main public policy on security, in which even 247 action polygons were defined in the most violent cities of the country, was abandoned and, for 2017, it simply it was without a budget
To exercise resources for more than 9 billion pesos between 2013 and 2016, the National Program to Prevent Violence and Crime did not get a single peso last year.
In some polygons such as Renacimiento City and El Coloso, in the suburban area of Acapulco, violence not only was not contained, but it got worse and even reached tourist areas with murders in the strip of beach or shootings in the middle Miguel Aleman.
The strategy of pacification and construction of the social fabric, driven to the start of the peñismo through the program of collectives Mexico, Culture for Harmony, was also abandoned in the last two years of the sexennium.
Intentional homicides, which began to fall in 2012, increased sharply after the fourth year of Enrique Peña Nieto's government.