rug trafficking has changed in recent years, before violence was unnecessary and organizations were scarce.
In the decade of 1970 there were only two organizations identified by the federal authorities, currently it is recognized the presence of nine cartels and 36 groups, cells or gangs linked to any of the criminal organizations.
These two bands of drug trafficking, which were not even called cartels but "clicas", were the organization of the Gulf and the Pacific.
The latter is led by who is considered the first drug boss in Mexico: Pedro Avilés Pérez, better known as "El León de la Sierra".
He was credited with this nickname for making the mountains of the Golden Triangle one of its centers of operation, from where he converted the drug trafficking business into a model of organization in planting, cultivation and distribution.
Before Pablo Escobar consolidated himself as "El Patron of Evil," Avilés Pérez was already trafficking cocaine to the United States from South America.
In the United States, his contact was Max Cossman, "The King of Opium," who was a member of the gang of Benjamin "Bugsy'" Siegel of the Lucky Luciano family.
Luciano was the head of the Italian-American mafia, a group that since the 1940s had been operating in Mexico.
Because of the Second World War, Mexico became the ideal scenario for the sowing of drugs, this because the heroin was used in war hospitals.
For this reason, Lucky Luciano proposed to the government of the American president Franklin Roosevelt to promote the cultivation in Mexico to supply the shortage of heroin and morphine in the market due to the suspension of the flow of heroin from Turkey.
According to the journalist Anabel Hernández, in his book "Los Señores del Narco", under the orders of "The Lion of the Sierra" were men who years later would be fearsome drug lords.
In the closest circle of Pedro Avilés were: Miguel Félix Gallardo, who would be the leader of the Cartel of Guadalajara, an organization that would precede the one of the Pacific, and would nickname him "El Jefe de Jefes".
Miguel Felix Gallardo
There was also Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo, "Don Neto", right arm of Felix Gallardo; Manuel Salcido Uzueta, "El Cochiloco", one of the closest men of Avilés Pérez.
Not to mention Juan José Quintero Payán, "Don Juanjo", who in the long run would be co-founder of the Juarez Cartel; and Pablo Acosta Villarreal, known as "El Zorro de Ojinaga".
The last in the first circle of "The Lion of the Sierra" was Juan José Esparragoza Moreno, "El Azul", one of the founders of the Guadalajara Cartel and later of the Sinaloa Cartel.
Don Neto (Above left), El Azul (Above right), Don Juanjo (Below Left), El Zorro de Ojinaga (Below right)
The second close circle of Pedro Avilés Pérez was Amado Carillo, who would be known as "The Lord of the Skies", founder and maximum leader of the Juarez Cartel, as well as one of the first, along with Felix Gallardo, to link up with Pablo Escobar In colombia.
Amado Carillo Fuentes
There was also Rafael Caro Quintero, called "El narco de narcos", another of the founders of the Guadalajara Cartel with "Don Neto" and "El Jefe de Jefes".
Finally there was Ismael "El Mayo" Zambada, one of the founders of the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal who has escaped justice for decades.
Below, working only as sowers or sicarios, were Joaquín Guzmán Loera, "El Chapo", his right hand Héctor "El Güero" Palma, as well as the Arellano Félix brothers and the Beltrán Leyva brothers.
In those years, violence was practically nil, even seen as a threat to the business.
In the organization of the Pacific, the majority was originally from Sinaloa, however they were known as the organization of Guadalajara because there was their center of operations, also where they were settled.
Despite the low profile, the opulence of drug trafficking has always been difficult to hide. The development of the Jalisco city evidenced the hand of drug trafficking in the state overlapped by the government.
The agreement with the authorities had two bases: Aviles Perez would maintain peace in the areas of operation and circulate the money for the benefit of the local economy.
In full national celebrations, on September 15, 1978, "The Lion of the Sierra" was killed in a shootout in Culiacán, Sinaloa.
According to unofficial versions, Avilés Pérez was the victim of a trap made by the Mexican Army.
The criminal boss was on his way to an appointment when he was hit by the military, who took his guns and later murdered him.
With the death of "El Leon de la Sierra", Felix Gallardo would take the leadership of the organization thus creating the Guadalajara Cartel.
The coca plant is native to South America, but it has successfully been grown in Indonesia and Taiwan a long time ago. There have stories on BB about tries to introduce it to Mexico too, but so far, only limited attempts.
Cocaine was first made 14 years before Heroin. 1860 VS 1874.
Great post Le Chef!Love the old photos.It's a dying breed.Those last of the few left are all going to be 6 feet under soon.I don't mean murdered just they are all up there in age and going to be the end of the old school narcos like Zambada,Don Neto,Caro,Guero Palma and even Chapo.They can't live forever even with Santa Muerte.Scary part is who will hold the reins and how will business be conducted?Civily or not?
That's amazing too coke invented 1860,heroin 1874.So so long ago and never went out of style at least the coke!